Small Talk / Toys

Making A Doll That Looks Just Like You

Miss Mary

It is believed that from 1845 to 1886 Izannah Walker—and her team of three sisters—produced close to 3,000 dolls. Although Walker’s career happened concurrently with the Industrial Revolution, each of the dolls was hand-painted to have a distinct look and face rather than the ceramic or bisque dolls that were currently being mass-produced. In a male-dominated doll making industry, Walker became the first American woman to receive a doll making patent with her process for making a soft cloth doll that did not break when dropped. Here’s how she pulled it all off:

First, the doll’s head and shoulders were formed by applying glue to layers of inexpensive cloth and batting. The fabric was then pressed into a mold to harden. A rod would be inserted into the center of the form to provide strength from the head to torso. Ears were formed out of fabric tubes attached to the head. After applying another layer of paste and waiting for the doll to dry, Walker would paint the doll’s head. Next, the doll’s torso and limbs were sewn and stuffed. Walker preferred to sew joints at the doll’s elbows and knees—she even attached thumbs and sewed fingers! She would then paint the limbs with the same color used on the head. All that was left was to attach a second covering to the doll’s body in order to conceal the elbow and knee joints and provide a neatly finished doll, each as unique as the child that owned her.

Let’s Take a Stroll

McLoughlin Brothers Folding Dollhouse

Everyone loves a fabulous garden, even dolls! In the early 1900s, McLoughlin Brothers, Inc. produced the New Folding Dollhouse. Two stories tall and able to be constructed in a minute, the dollhouse’s special feature was its façade, which folded down to reveal an ornamental garden for the dollhouse occupants.

Like other manufacturers such as Bliss, the McLoughlin Brothers used chromolithography to produce their brightly colored cardboard dollhouses. With its color printed windows, bricks, and columns, this dollhouse serves as a time capsule of the decorative and architectural style of the late Victorian period. Bright colors, ornate decorations, and curtain-lined windows surround opulent rugs, cushioned window seats, and beautiful fireplaces. The house is sumptuous and pleasantly cluttered, two hallmarks of turn-of-the-century decorating. Try your hand at making your own tiny folding dollhouse with this template!

Toy or Miniature?

ToolChests

So, what is the difference between a toy and a fine-scale miniature? This is perhaps one of the most frequently asked questions we hear at the museum. Let’s take a quick look at a few pieces from the collection to illustrate the answer!

William Robertson’s miniature Hewitt “gentleman’s” chest and the American Manufacturing Concern’s (AMC) Elite Tool Chest for Boys are similar tool chests featuring dovetail joints. The most apparent difference is probably their size; the Elite Tool Chest measures a child-size 17 5/8” long, while Robertson’s 1-inch scale miniature measures a just a wee 2” long. Both chests are “real” tool chests in that they feature a full set of functioning tools which could be used to complete any number of carpentry projects. In fact, Robertson’s miniature includes all the same tools as the full-size Hewitt chest currently located at Colonial Williamsburg—the saw even has 160 teeth to the inch!

It probably goes without saying that these two tool chests are meant for two very different audiences. AMC mass produced the Elite Tool Chest to offer children— well, apparently only boys— size-appropriate tools for practicing their carpentry skills. Robertson’s Hewitt chest was created with no intention to actually use the tools, but rather to understand and study the skills traditional craftsmen used to handcraft everyday objects. You could probably say that both pieces were created to educate, but as very different teaching tools—pun intended!

Look, She’s Walking!

Autoperipetekos

We’re guessing no Victorian child (or adult for that matter) probably called this doll by her proper name: Autoperipatetikos. This mouthful of a name is actually Greek for “self-walker” or “walking about by itself.” And walk she does! Ok, well maybe it’s more like a jerky scooting motion

Patented in 1862 by Enoch Rice Morrison, this china head doll is among the first walking dolls in American history. Previous examples of walking dolls existed, but they usually had to be supported by a string, wooden baby walker, or were guided. Mr. Morrison was able to solve this issue of balance by giving his doll larger feet with a wide stance, a stiff cone under her dress, and arms made of kid leather to reduce shifting weight. Her pink dress also hides the key-wound clockwork mechanism that allows her feet to move. Like most mechanical toys, the amazing and beautiful Autoperipatetikos is not without some faults, as her original box reads: “If it should stop at any time, turn the feet toward you and see if the inside leg is not caught up against the feet.” Oh dear.

Hay is for Horses

GottschalkStable

The Moritz Gottschalk company produced a lot more than dollhouses; it could be said that they produced every kind of toy structure imaginable, from warehouses, forts, theaters and shops to stables, rooms, and kitchens. Surprisingly, none of the structures are marked with the company’s name. But many clues helped T/m easily identify this Gottschalk stable: a red or blue roof, lithographed paper details, and the creative use and replication of architectural forms in the toy structure.

Just as race tracks and garages filled with four-wheeled vehicles occupy hours of play today, the Red Roof Stable Model No. 4541 was a favorite of boys and girls. Models ranged in size and accessories brought to life all sorts of imaginative play with farm animals and hay carts to haul bailed hay or horses to pull carriages on cobblestone roads. We think it is really neat to see the similarities between this stable and the stables that children can play with today!

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